The present publication follows latest research and newlyavailable sources in an attempt to offer a review of the years from 1918 to 1953 in Lithuanian history, a period of dramatic changes. The first part of the book is a summary- style introduction into the life of Lithuania after it was restored in 1918, coverting the building of the state and the main achievements and challenges in the process. The main part of the book focuses on the impact that the Soviet ( 1940-19410 ) and Nazi (1941-1944) occupation as well as the Stalinist regime of 1944-1953 had on Lithuania. The author covers the wave of repression, the sovietisation of all areas of life as well as the armed and unarmed resistance of the Lithuanian people to occupation. The book also explains the mechanisms of physical and psychological annihilation that the Soviets employed against local population.